Medical and Surgical Retina

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Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the retinal changes as the complication due to diabetic mellitus . It is the common cause of severe bilateral visual loss in working age group.


  • Asymptomatic in early stages

  • Blurred vision

  • Fluctuating vision

  • Dark areas in the vision

  • Poor night vision

  • Impaired colour vision

  • Partial or total loss of vision

Risk factors

  • Duration of having diabeties

  • Poor glucose control

  • Hypertension

  • Pregnancy

  • Nephropathy

  • Others : obesity, smoking, hyperlipidimea


  • Visual acuity test

  • Pupil dilation

  • Direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy

  • Fundus fluorescien angiography

  • Optical coherence tomography


  • Laser Photocoagulation

    Laser treatment usually works very well to prevent vision loss if its done before the retina has been severely damaged.

    • Focal laser
    • Grid laser
    • Pan retinal photo coagulation
  • Intravitreal anti – VEGF therapy

    Anti – VEGFmedicines slow the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the retina Eg : lucentis, avastin

  • Intravitreal steriods

    Triamicinolone acetonide.

    Diabetic retinopathy is preventable through strict glycemic control & annual dilated eye exam by an ophthalmologist.